Sunbed use and the risk of melanoma

(i) Identify the study design used by Murray and Turner (2004). (2 marks)
(ii) Identify the specific data collection method used by Murray and Turner (2004). (2 marks)
Q. 2.
(i) Based on the description of the sampling process outlined in this study please identify the type of sampling employed, based on what we have learnt about the different types of sampling in HBS108. (2 marks)
(ii) Justify your answer to Question 2 (i) above by using information from the article and from your HBS108 learning resources to support your answer.

Q. 3.
Please refer to the analysis and discussion section of the study which outlines 5 broad qualitative themes across which responses of participants are categorised i.e. coded. Imagine you are a health researcher and are responsible for coding some of the data collected. For each of the following statements please identify which of the 5 themes the statement most appropriately fits into:
(i) “If I thought about it I would feel guilty I suppose as I know it’s not the best thing to do but since I don’t use the sunbed too often, usually just before holidays, I hope for the best.”
(ii) “I wanted to get a tan as I thought it would make my cellulite less obvious.”
(iii) “I love the sunbed and I have been using it for years. I would never stop now.”
(iv) “Having a nice tan makes me feel more confident when I get dressed up on a Saturday night.”
(v) “I feel more confident when I have a tan; it makes it easier to talk to people.”
(vi) “Twenty minutes on a sunbed now and again isn’t as bad for my skin as spending hours on the beach.”
(vii) “We don’t get enough sunshine in the U.K. Using a sunbed is my only hope of getting a tan.”
(viii) “I know it is probably not the best for my skin. I get a burning smell from my skin after a solarium session but I try not to think about it. I mean I could get hit by a bus in the morning so I can’t spend all my time worrying about everything!”
(16 marks)
Q. 4.
Imagine you are a health promotion officer and you need to design an evidence based health promotion campaign with the aim of reducing sunbed use in the United Kingdom. You must use the findings of the study by Murray and Turner (2004) to inform your suggested campaign. Suggest a health promotion intervention and justify your approach by backing it up with the research findings and conclusions of this qualitative study. (7 marks)
Q. 5.
Explain how/why qualitative research evidence in particular is very useful in informing the best approach to designing a health promotion campaign like this. (5 marks)
TASK B—Quantitative Research
Some of the following questions relate to interpreting odds ratios and confidence intervals (Topic 7). Please ensure you have studied the relevant Topic 7 content before attempting these questions.
The following questions are based on the study by Cust et al. (2015).
Q. 6.
(i) What study design was implemented in Cust et al.’s (2011) study? (2 marks)
(ii) Briefly outline the data collection methods used by Cust et al. (2011). (4 marks)
Page 3 of 6
(iii) Observe the data in Table 1 ‘Demographic characteristics of cases and controls in the Australian Melanoma Family Study’ (Cust et al. 2011, p. 2428). Which scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) was used to present each of the following types of data in the table:
(a) Place of Birth.
(b) Highest level of Education.
(c) Median age (not range).
(d) Sex.
(12 marks)
Please examine ‘Table 2. ORs for melanoma in relation to sunbed use’ (Cust et al. 2011, p. 2429) and use the data to answer Questions 7 to 13.
Q. 7.
What is the odds ratio for ‘ever’ using a sunbed? (2 marks)
Q. 8.
Judging by the odds ratio alone, does this ‘ever’ use group appear to be at a greater or lesser risk of developing a melanoma than the ‘never’ use group? How much of a greater or lesser risk? In your answer briefly explain your interpretation of this odds ratio using the learning resources from Topic 7. (5 marks)
Q. 9.
Judging by the confidence interval associated with the odds ratio for the ‘ever’ use group, is this difference in risk (denoted by the odds ratio) between the ‘never’ use and the ‘ever’ use group statistically significant? In your answer briefly explain what statistical significance means in this context of developing melanoma. Note that your answers must be backed up with reference to the confidence interval figures from Table 2. (4 marks)
Q. 10.
What can this study tell us about the risk of developing melanoma for those in the general population who are under 25 years old for their first sunbed use? Please explain your answer by backing it up with an interpretation of the relevant figures from Table 2. (4 marks)
Q. 11.
What can this study tell us about the risk of developing melanoma for those in the general population who are 25 years or older for their first sunbed use? Please explain your answer by backing it up with the relevant figures from Table 2. (4 marks)
Q. 12.
The authors describe a number of study limitations in their discussion. Please explain, by paraphrasing/summarising, two specific limitations of this study and how they may have impacted the findings. (4 marks)
Page 4 of 6
Q. 13.
Most Australian States and Territories have banned solariums since 2014. Policy banning solarium businesses may not be the most effective means of eradicating sunbed use. Popular media reported concerns about the bans. Imagine you are a policy analyst, research this issue using Google (non-academic sources are fine for this) and explain two of the perceived disadvantages of a policy completely banning the commercial use of solariums. (4 marks)
Q. 14.
The knowledge and skills you have developed in HBS108 Health Information and Data to date will be beneficial in your future career.
(i) Please identify a specific career of interest to you currently. (1 marks)
(ii) Find an online job advertisement related to the career you described for Question 14 (i) and copy and paste at least two of the selection criteria from the job advertisement which relate to your learning in HBS108. (Note that the selection criteria do not count towards your assignment’s word count). (2 marks)
(iii) Outline how two of the specific skills you have developed in HBS108 are relevant to the selection criteria of your chosen job. Students must refer to the unit learning outcomes in the unit guide to help you inform their answer. (12 marks)

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